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Health Policy

Health policy can be defined as "decisions, plans, and actions undertaken to achieve targeted health care within society. 

According to WHO, through a clear Health policy, several things can be achieved: To achieve many goals and define future perspectives in the priorities and roles expected of different groups and to build consensus among people.

There are many types of health policy, which include:

  1. personal health care policy.
  2. pharmacological policy.
  3. public health policy.

such as vaccination policy, tobacco control policy, or the promotion of breastfeeding.


Personal Health Care Policy Options

  • Philosophy: The right to health

Many states and jurisdictions integrate human rights philosophy in guiding their healthcare policies. WHO reports that every State in the world is a party to at least one human rights treaty dealing with health-related rights, including the right to health, as well as other rights relating to conditions for good health. 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) declares that all individuals have the right to medical care:

Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothes, shelter, medical care, and other essential social services, as well as the right to security in the event of unemployment, disease, disability, widowhood, old age, or any other form of insecurity. under conditions beyond his control."

In some jurisdictions and among different religious organizations, health policies are influenced by the perceived obligation of religious beliefs to care for those in less favorable conditions, including patients. Jurisdictions and other non-governmental organizations rely on the principles of humanity to define their health policies and to affirm the same perceived commitment and right to health. 

In recent years, Amnesty International has focused on health as a human right, addressing inadequate access to HIV drugs and women's sexual and reproductive rights, including wide disparities in maternal mortality within the urn.

Between them. The leading medical journal The Lancet has welcomed such increased attention to health as a fundamental human right.


Who will pay for medical care?

There's still a big Health policy debate about who will pay for medical care for all people under what circumstances. 

For example, government spending on health care is sometimes used as a global indicator of government commitment to the health of its people. 

On the other hand, a school of thought originating from the United States rejects the idea of financing health care through taxpayer funding as incompatible with the (no less important) right to the professional judgment of a doctor and concerns related to the fact that the government's participation in overseeing the health of its citizens may undermine the right to privacy between doctors and patients. 

The argument confirms that universal health insurance denies individual patients the right to dispose of their income in accordance with their will.


Another issue in the rights debate is the use of legislation by Governments to control competition between private medical insurance providers against national social insurance systems, as in Canada's National Health Insurance Program. 


Proponents of the non-intervention approach say that it reduces the health system's cost effectiveness. Even those who can afford private health care deplete the resources of others who can't the public system.

The issue is whether investor-owned medical insurance companies or health maintenance institutions are better placed to operate in the best interests of their clients than government regulation and oversight. 

Another claim in the United States is that excessive government regulation of the health care and insurance sectors is the effective end of charity home visits by doctors between the poor and the elderly.


Economy: Financing health care

There are many types of health policy that focus on financing healthcare services to spread the economic risks of ill health. These include publicly funded health care (through taxes or insurance, also known as single-payer systems), compulsory or voluntary health insurance, and full-value personal health-care services through private companies, among others. Debate continues on what kind of health financing policy results in better or worse quality of health-care services provided, and how to ensure that earmarked funds are used effectively and efficiently and fairness.


On the question of public vs. private health finance policies, there are numerous arguments on both sides:

Claims that government-funded health care enhances the quality and efficiency of personal health care delivery include the following:

  1. Government spending on health is essential for access to and sustainability of health care services and programs.
  2. For those people who would have gone unattended because of a lack of financial resources, any good care is an improvement.
  3. Because people see universal health care as free (if there is no insurance or co-payment), they are likely to seek preventive care that may reduce the burden of disease and In the long run, healthcare costs will be higher.
  4. Single motive systems reduce waste by removing the intermediary. private insurance companies, thereby reducing the amount of bureaucracy. In particular, reducing the amount of paperwork that medical professionals have to deal with to process insurance claims allows them to focus more on treating patients.

Claims that privately-funded health care leads to increased quality and efficiency in personal health care:

  1. Perceptions that publicly funded health care is free can lead to overuse of medical services, thereby increasing overall costs compared to private health financing.
  2. Privately financed medicines lead to greater quality and efficiency by increasing access to specialized healthcare services and techniques and reducing waiting times.
  3. Limiting the allocation of public funds to personal health care does not limit the ability of uninsured citizens to pay for their own health care as an expense from the pocket.
  4. Public funds can be better rationalized to provide emergency care services regardless of insurance status or ability to pay, as with emergency medical treatment and active labor law in the United States.
  5. Privately funded and managed health care reduces governments' demand for increased taxes to cover health care costs, which may be exacerbated by inefficiency among government agencies due to greater bureaucracy.


 Health policy options 

health policy options include medical research and health workforce planning, both domestically and internationally, in addition to financing and delivery of personal health care.


Policy on medical research

Medical research can be used to determine evidence-based health policy, as well as the topic of health policy.


itself, particularly in terms of financial sources. Proponents of government policies that promote publicly funded medical research believe that removing profit as a motivator will boost medical innovation.

Opponents argue that it will do the opposite because removing the profit incentive removes the incentives for innovation and prevents the development and use of new technologies.


Proper medical research does not necessarily lead to evidence-based policy-making. For example, in South Africa, whose population records an HIV index, previous government policy limiting funding and access to AIDS treatments has faced strong controversy because it is based on a refusal to accept the scientific evidence on transmission methods. 

The change of government eventually led to a change in policy, with new policies to access HIV services being implemented on a large scale. There is another intellectual property issue, as can be seen from the case of Brazil, where discussions have been raised about the Government's policy of allowing the local manufacture of lethal antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS in violation of drug patents.


Health workforce policy

Some States and judicial authorities have a clear or strategic policy for a plan for adequate preparation, distribution, and quality of health personnel to achieve health care objectives, such as doctor's address and lack of nursing. Elsewhere, workforce planning is distributed among labor market participants as a non-intervention approach to health policy. Evidence-based policies for workforce development are usually based on health service research results.


Health in Foreign Policy

To attain global health goals, several governments and institutions integrate a health component in their foreign policy. Health promotion in low-income countries is seen as a means of achieving other goals on the global agenda, including:

  • Strengthening global security; linked to fears of global epidemics, the deliberate spread of pathogens, and a potential increase in humanitarian conflicts, natural disasters, and emergencies.
  • Enhancement of Economy; including addressing the economic impact of poor health on development, epidemics on the global market, as well as gains from the growing global market in health goods and services.
  • Promoting social justice; Promoting health as a social value and a human right, including in support of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.


Global Health policy

Global health policy encompasses the global governance structures that create public health policies around the world. When addressing global health, global health policy "means taking into account the health needs of the peoples of the entire planet above the concerns of certain nations." 

By distinguishing them from both international health policy (agreements between sovereign States) and comparative health policy (cross-State health policy analysis), global health policy institutions are made up of the actors and standards that form the framework of the global health response.

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