Btc roulette Mesothelioma Lung Cancer : Definition , Causes , Kinds , Symptoms , Diagnostic Test

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Mesothelioma Lung Cancer : Definition , Causes , Kinds , Symptoms , Diagnostic Test

 
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Definition of  Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy that affects the lining layer of several bodily cavities, including the lungs, chest, and abdomen.


Causes of Mesothelioma

The main risk factor for mesothelioma is previous exposure to asbestos, small particles that are used to isolate and heat homes.


The use of this substance is currently limited, and there are strict safety directives for dealing with or around this substance. 


However, the negative effects of asbestos were unknown in the past decades when their use was more widespread.

So older people who were exposed to asbestos at a young age had a greater chance of contracting the disease.


Asbestos-related cancers may take decades to develop and emerge, so if you were exposed to asbestos more than 20 years ago, you might still be at risk of mesothelioma.


Studies have also shown that smoking may increase the chance of asbestos-related cancers.


Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. One common symptom is a persistent cough or a change in the nature of a chronic cough.


Chest X-rays may detect most lung cancers, but other additional imaging tests and biopsies are necessary.


Surgery, chemotherapy, targeted agents, and radiotherapy can be used in the treatment of lung cancer.

(See also an overview of lung Cancer)



Kinds of Mesothelioma


Primary lung cancer is cancer originating from lung cells. Primary lung cancer can begin in the airways that branch from the tyranny to supply the lungs (bronchi) or in the small airbags of the lung (skins).


Metastatic lung cancer (Mesothelioma) is cancer that has spread to the lung from other parts of the body (most commonly breast, colon, prostate, kidney, thyroid, stomach, mercury neck, rectum, testicle, bone, or skin).


Lung Cancer Primary lung cancer is classified into two types:


  • Bronchial carcinoid tumors (which may also be non-cancerous).
  • Bronchial gland carcinomas.
  • Lymphoma (lymphoma or blood).
  • Mesothelioma (due to asbestos exposure).


Non-small cell lung cancer

about 85-87% of lung cancers are found in this category. This malignancy spreads slower than small-cell lung cancer.
 

However, while diagnosis is placed in about 40% of patients, cancer has spread to other parts of the body outside the chest. The most common type of non-small cell lung cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.


Small cell lung cancer: Carcinoma is called oat cell carcinoma, and represents about 13-15% of lung cancers. It is a highly aggressive cancer, spreading fast. By the time the diagnosis is made, cancer has spread to other parts of the body.


Symptoms of Mesothelioma


  1. Fluid is collected in the lungs or abdomen.
  2. Difficulty breathing.
  3. Chest pain.
  4. Pain or swelling of the abdomen.
  5. Having a mass in the abdomen.


Mesothelioma diagnostic tests


  • PET/PET to identify any dysfunction of organ or tissue function.
  • Popular ultrasonchial endoscopy (Endobronchial ultrasound -EBUS) for images of lungs and surrounding areas to detect the presence of any tumors, this technique can also be used to obtain a biopsy of lung tissue.
  • Lung function tests (PFTs) are used to monitor breathing and measure lung function.
  • Cellular examination of phlegm, a microscopic examination of a sample cell of the lung mucous matter.
  • Bronchoscopy is used to evaluate the lungs' airways.
  • Acupuncture through the chest to obtain a sample of lung tissue to be examined under a microscope.
  • Blood tests (CBC).

mesothelioma lung cancer


Treatment of Mesothelioma 


  • The treatment plan is developed based on the size of the tumor and the stage of the disease. 
  • The treatment plan may include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Surgical Operation.
  • Radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Targeted Treatments.

Doctors use different treatments for both small and non-small cell lung cancer. surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation can all be done alone or in conjunction. The precise combination of treatments is based on:


  • Cancer Pattern.
  • Cancer Location.
  • The severity of cancer.
  • Degree of cancer prevalence.
  • Patient's general health.

For example, the treatment of some people with non-small cell lung
cancer advanced includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy before, after, or instead of surgical ablation.


Surgical treatment of lung cancer


Surgery is the therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer, which did not spread outside the lung (early stage of the disease).

Surgery is usually not resorted to managing PCT in the early stages because this aggressive cancer needs to be used as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 


Surgery may not be possible if cancer spreads outside the lungs, if it is too close to the trachea, or if the patient has other serious conditions (such as severe heart or lung disease).


Doctors test lung function before surgery to determine whether the remaining lung size after surgery will be able to provide sufficient oxygen and perform the respiratory function.
 

The test results indicated that removing the cancerous part of the lung would lead to inadequate lung function, and surgery would not be possible. 




The size of the lung to be removed is determined by the surgeon, with the size varying from a small portion of the lung to the entire lung.

Although surgical removal of non-small cell lung cancers is possible, eradication does not always lead to recovery. Complementary chemotherapy (additional) after surgery can help increase survival and is performed in all but the smallest cancers. 


Chemotherapy is sometimes given before surgery (called neoadjuvant therapy) to help reduce the tumor before surgery.


Sometimes, cancer that started elsewhere in the body (e.g. colon cancer) is removed and spread to the lungs, after cancer has been removed from its source. 


This procedure is recommended in rare cases, but tests should show that the cancer has not spread to any position outside the lungs.



Radiotherapy for lung cancer


Radiotherapy is used in both small and non-small cell lung cancers.
They can be used in people who refuse to undergo surgery, are unable to undergo surgery for another condition (such as severe coronal artery disease), or have cancer spread to adjacent structures, such as lymphatic nodes. 

Although radiotherapy is used in cancer treatment, some people have it, but its effect may be limited to cancer contraction or slowing down. The combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves these people's survival chances.


Some people with small cell lung cancer, who respond well to chemotherapy, may benefit from head radiation therapy to prevent cancer from spreading to the brain. 

But, if cancer has already spread to the brain, brain radiotherapy is usually used to relieve the severity of symptoms, such as fractures, mental mixing, and cramps.

Radiotherapy also serves to control lung cancer complications, such as cough, bone pain, upper hollow IV syndrome, and spinal cord compression.


Chemical treatment of lung cancer


Radiotherapy is used in both small and non-small cell lung cancers. 

Chemical treatment of small-cell lung cancer, and sometimes besides radiotherapy, is the main treatment. This method is preferred, because small-celled lung cancer is aggressive, often spreading to distant parts of the body prior to diagnosis. 

Chemotherapy can prolong survival when the disease has reached an advanced stage. When treatment is neglected, the average survival period is limited to 6-12 weeks.

The use of chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer also usually prolongs survival, It treats symptoms. 

Average survival increases to 9 months when people with non-small cell lung cancer spread to other parts of the body and are treated.


Targeted treatments may also improve a cancer patient's chance of survival.


Target therapies for lung cancer



Some people with non-small cell lung cancer continue to live much longer when treated with chemotherapy, radiation, or some new targeted treatment. 

Targeted treatments involve drugs, such as biological agents that specifically target lung tumors. Recent studies have identified proteins within cancer cells and blood vessels that feed cancer cells.


These proteins can be involved in regulating and promoting cancer and metastatic growth. The drugs have been designed to particularly affect the deformed protein structure, potentially killing or preventing the growth of cancer cells. 


Medication targeting such anomalies includes bevacizumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, crizotinib, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib.

There is a new drug classification called immunotherapy, which includes nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab, and enables the patient's immune system to fight cancer. 


These drugs can be used instead of the usual chemotherapy drugs, in combination with them, or after the failure of traditional chemotherapy drugs.

treatment of lung cancer


Laser treatment of lung cancer


Laser therapy is sometimes used, as lasers are used to eradicate or reduce the volume of pulmonary tumors. High energy tiara (radiofrequency ablation) or cold (cryoablation) can be used to sabotage cancer cells in those who have small tumors, or cannot undergo surgery.


Other Treatments


  • It is necessary to resort to other treatments often in people with lung cancer. 
  • Many of these so-called palliative treatments are aimed at alleviating the severity of symptoms rather than cancer treatment.
  • Due to the suffering many people with cancer, many people with lung cancer suffer from significant deficiencies in lung function, whether or not they have undergone treatment, oxygen therapy, and bronchodilation.
  • (drugs that expand the airways) may help breathe.
  • The pain often needs to be addressed. Opioids are often used to relieve pain intensity but may cause side effects, such as constipation, which also needs treatment.


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